Long-Term Receiving Water Study

The Long-Term Receiving Water Study (LTRWS) was initiated in 1998 to examine the relationship between pulp and paper mill effluents and aquatic biota (fish, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton), habitat conditions, and water quality parameters in four US pulp and paper mill effluent receiving waters. The scope and spatial and temporal extent of the study is unparalleled, and the resulting data set provides the industry with short-term and long-term information on potential effluent-related patterns in effluent receiving streams in different ecoregions, system types (warm- or coldwater), instream effluent concentration gradients, and mill process types (bleached vs. unbleached kraft).

NCASI staff visit study sites on the four rivers several times every year.